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Class loaders are responsible for loading Java classes during runtime dynamically to the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Class loaders are part of the Java Runtime Environment. When the JVM requests a class, the class loader tries to locate the class and load the class definition into the runtime using the fully qualified class name. The java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass() method is responsible for loading the class definition into runtime. It tries to load the class based on a fully qualified name.

If the class isn’t already loaded, it delegates the request to the parent class loader. This process happens recursively.

PF4J uses PluginClassLoader to load classes from plugins.
So, each available plugin is loaded using a different PluginClassLoader.
One instance of PluginClassLoader should be created by plugin manager for every available plug-in.
By default, this class loader is a Parent Last ClassLoader - it loads the classes from the plugin’s jars before delegating to the parent class loader.

By default (parent last), PluginClassLoader uses below strategy when a load class request is received via loadClass(String className) method:

  • if the class is a system class (className starts with java.), delegate to the system loader
  • if the class is part of the plugin engine (className starts with org.pf4j), use parent class loader (ApplicationClassLoader in general)
  • try to load using current PluginClassLoader instance
  • if the current PluginClassLoader cannot load the class, try to delegate to PluginClassLoaders of plugin’s dependencies
  • delegate class load to parent class loader

Use parentFirst parameter of PluginClassLoader to change the loading strategy.
For example if I want to use a Parent First strategy in my application, all I must to achieve this is:

new DefaultPluginManager() {
    protected PluginClassLoader createPluginClassLoader(Path pluginPath, PluginDescriptor pluginDescriptor) {
        return new PluginClassLoader(pluginManager, pluginDescriptor, getClass().getClassLoader(), true);


If you want to know what plugin loaded a specific class you can use:


PF4J uses by default a separate class loader for each plugin but this doesn’t mean that you cannot use the same class loader (probably the application class loader) for all plugins. If your application requires this use case then what you must to do is to return the same class loader from PluginLoader.loadPlugin:

public interface PluginLoader {

    boolean isApplicable(Path pluginPath);

    ClassLoader loadPlugin(Path pluginPath, PluginDescriptor pluginDescriptor);


If you use DefaultPluginManager you can choose to override DefaultPluginManager.createPluginLoader and/or DefaultPluginLoader.createClassLoader.